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Хасанова, Ш.А. National and cultural specificity of emotional in the English, Rbssian and Bashkir languages- Национально-культурная специфика эмоциональных концептов в английском, русском и башкирском языках [Электронный ресурс]: выпускная квалификационная работа по специальности Педагогическое образование профиль Иностранный язык / Ш.А. Хасанова; Башкирский государственный университет, Сибайский филиал; к.ф.н., доцент З.Р. Ахметзадина. — Сибай, 2017 — 79с.: ил. — <URL:http://elib.bashedu.ru/dl/diplom/Khasanova Sh.A. 44.03.01 Pedfak Innobr.pdf>.

Record create date: 7/31/2017

Subject: Педагогическое образование — Иностранный язык; бакалавриат; ВКР; языки; культурная специфика; концепты

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Table of Contents

  • 1.3 The problems of comparative linguistics
  • The first experience of comparing languages dates back to ancient times. I.P. Susov, for example, mentions about “the lexical comparison of the Sumerian and the Akkadian languages in Babylon, the comparison of the Hittite and other languages by Hittit...
  • In linguistic literature there are different interpretations of some terms, in particular of the terms “comparative linguistics” and “contrastive linguistics”. According to V.N. Yartseva, “contrastive linguistics is a branch of general linguistics ...
  • Comparative linguistics is one of the most important trends in modern linguistics; in most scholars’ opinion, it compares “two, sometimes several languages in order to reveal their similarities and differences” .
  • V.G. Gak also holds to the opinion that these terms are synonyms, but in foreign linguistics, as he states, the term “contrastive linguistics” is more widely used: “in our linguistics this trend of the language analysis was called “comparison of langu...
  • At the same time A.G. Shirokova points out that “the contrastive method accentuates one language, the comparative one functions as a means of its study” . In comparison all the sides of systematic qualities of every compared language are revealed.
  • In science the question of comparative / contrastive linguistic typologies, of their demarcation line and, on the contrary, their correlation has been actively discussed. V. Skalicka explains the difference between them in the following way: typology ...
  • At the same time there can be observed rather poor empiric data resulting from the scarce practical studies of non-kin languages. The high level of scientific generalization is frequently reached during the practical studying of the language in the co...
  • The comparative investigations proper of the “alien spaces” of languages (contrastive or confrontative – some scientists terminologically dissolve these two notions) appeared in the second half of XX century. V.N. Yartseva, interpreting all the three ...
  • Comparative (contrastive) linguistics aims at comparing languages in general, including all the levels of language – phonological, morphological, syntactical, semantic . One of the compared languages is sometimes called a language-etalon (or, like in ...
  • Similarities and differences are singled out. Comparison may be carried out in the direction from a foreign language to the native one. Sometimes some hypothetic intermediary language (a language-mediator) can be modeled. It is qualified as a language...
  • Three languages can also be compared. For example, as V.N. Yartseva states, in Bashkir schools where English is taught as a foreign language it would be reasonable to single out the similarities and differences of three languages: Bashkir, Russian and...
  • Sometimes four or more languages can be compared, depending on the necessity to form the common theory of language, language contrasts, translation and intercultural communication. The universal language treated as an etalon in this case is a scientif...
  • At present native and foreign linguists using the material of different languages and national variants of a number of languages conduct comparative analysis not only in the sphere of grammar, morphology and syntax, phonetics and lexis, but also make ...
  • The majority of scholars have surmised that the object of comparative researches should become exclusively the description of specific features and distinctions. It distinguishes, in B.A. Serebrennikov’s opinion, contrastive linguistics from other com...
  • Thus, the task of contrastive linguistics is unanimously understood as the comparative analysis of the languages revealing the general and nationally specific properties.
  • Within the frameworks of our investigation the compared languages are considered, first and foremost, as carriers of contrasting cultures and concepts.
  • Conclusion to chapter 1
  • 2. National and cultural specifity of emotional concepts in the english, russian and bashkir languages
  • 2.1 The procedure of emotional concept analysis
  • 1) An extremely strong dislike:
  • Men murder their wives from hatred or rage or despair, or to keep them from talking since not even bribery not even simple absence can bridle a woman's tongue .
  • “On the inside,” the sheriff said-and shouted against the door’s blank surface that he would break the door in if Mr. Pritchel didn’t answer and open it, and how this time the harsh furious old voice answered, shouting: “Get out of my house!” .
  • Her dislike was evident in the coldness with which she spoke, but Charlie only smiled; he had larger plans. Her very aggressiveness gave him an advantage, and he knew enough to wait” .
  • 2) To dislike someone or something very much:
  • I seemed to see his whole face wrenching itself furiously free from beneath the makeup which bore the painted wrinkles and the false eyebrows .
  • The resentment, natural to the baffled male, passed and he tried to understand what had happened .
  • And the shame and humiliation of that public weeping and my disgraceful homecoming remain with me still .
  • The hateful sea! .
  • Poirot looked at it discontentedly .
  • The key concept “hatred” and the synonyms representing its close and far periphery get some conceptual features, negative qualities, and some associative links with the help of expressive devices, for example:
  • Phraseological units:
  • Ill will – anger, hatred:
  • We bear no ill will toward each other.
  • He said the accusation had been made from hatred and ill will.
  • Bad blood (between people) – hateful relations between people:
  • My grandfather never visits his neighbor. There is a bad blood between them.
  • The lexemes “hate” and “hatred” and their synonyms frequently occur in proverbs, expressing the national picture of the world:
  • Hatred is the madness of the heart.
  • He who hates is lost.
  • Hatred is blind, as well as love.
  • Hate is burning fire that may consume the one who hates.
  • Thus, the cognitive analysis of the language material gives us an opportunity to come to the conclusion that the nucleus of the concept “hatred” is represented by the noun “hatred” and the verb “to hate” in the English linguistic picture of the world....
  • The following concept to be described is “love”. “The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology” compiled by T.F. Hoad suggests the following definition of the lexeme “love”:
  • Love (v) – Old English “lufian” – “to feel love for, cherish, show love to; delight in, approve”; from Proto-Germanic “lubojan” (source also of Old High German “lubon”, German “lieben”), a verb from the root of “love” (n). Weakened sense of “like” att...
  • Love (n) – Old English “lufu” – “feeling of love; romantic sexual attraction; friendliness; the love of God; Love as abstraction or personification”; from Proto-Germanic “lubo” (source also of Old High German “liubu” – “joy”, German “liebe” – “love” e...
  • The concept “love” in the English language is represented by the lexical unit “love”. Let us consider the lexeme in the English dictionaries. “Lоngman Dictionary of Contemporary English” suggests the following definition of the lexeme “love”:
  • Love (n) – 1) for family /friends, a strong feeling of caring about someone, especially a member of your family or a close friend; 2) (romantic) a strong feeling of liking and caring about someone, especially combined with sexual attraction; 3) a pers...
  • In “Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary” we find the following interpretation of the lexeme “love”:
  • Love (n) - 1) a strong feeling of deep affection for somebody/something, especially a member of your family or a friend; 2) a strong feeling of affection for somebody that you are sexually attracted to; 3) a strong feeling of enjoyment that something ...
  • The “Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners” suggests the following definitions of the lexeme “love”:
  • Love (v) – 1) to be very strongly attracted to someone in an emotional and sexual way; 2) to care very much about someone, especially members of your family or close friends
  • In “Oxford English Dictionary” we observe the following interpretation of the lexeme “love”:
  • Love (n) - 1) strong feeling of affection; 2) a great interest and pleasure in something; 3) a person or thing that one loves.
  • In “Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary” we can observe the following interpretation:
  • Love (v) – 1) to like another adult very much and be romantically and sexually attracted to them, or to have strong feelings of liking a friend or person in your family; 2) to like something very much.
  • Love (n) – 1) the feeling of liking another adult very much and being romantically and sexually attracted to them; 2) a person that you love and feel attracted to; 3) used as a friendly form of address
  • Having analyzed the given definitions, we may say that the lexeme “love” is represented in many English dictionaries. Let’s consider the common and specific features of the given lexeme in the following table (Appendix, Table 4).
  • Tenderness (n) – 1) soft or delicate in substance; 2) weak or delicate in constitution; 3) gentle relation to smb.
  • Devotion (n) – 1) profound dedication; consecration; 2) earnest attachment to causes, persons; 3) an assignment or appropriation to any purpose, cause: the devotion of one’s wealth and time to smth, smb.
  • Concern (v) – 1) to relate to; to be connected with, be interest of or importance to; affect; 2) to interest or engage: She concerns herself with aspect of the business; 3) to worry, to think about smb.
  • The key concept “love” and the synonyms representing its close and far periphery get some conceptual features, positive and negative qualities, and some associative links with the help of expressive devices, for example:
  • Phraseological units: (1)
  • To have the hots for someone - to find someone very attractive:
  • She's got the hots for the new office manager.
  • To be lovey-dovey - for a couple to show everyone how much they are in love:
  • They're so lovey-dovey, always whispering to each other and looking into each other's eyes.
  • A love-nest - the place where two lovers live:
  • They made a love-nest in the old basement flat.
  • To be the love of someone's life - to be loved by a person:
  • He has always been the love of her life.
  • The lexeme “love” and its synonyms frequently occur in proverbs, expressing the national picture of the world:
  • Each bird loves to hear himself sing.
  • Love me, love my dog.
  • No herb will cure love.
  • No man loves his fetters, be they made of gold.
  • Love is blind, as well as hatred.
  • To love somebody (something) as the devil loves holy water.
  • Salt water and absence wash away love.
  • Love will creep where it may not go.
  • The heart that once truly loves never forgets.
  • Thus, the cognitive analysis of the language material gives us an opportunity to come to the conclusion that the nucleus of the concept “love” is represented by the noun “love” and the verb “to love” in the English linguistic picture of the world. Hav...
  • The given system of lexemes contains several levels of generalization. “Страх” is a maximal common component. The lexeme “страх” as a dominant of the semantic field is a nuclear of the concept “страх”. All the members are united by the common semantic...
  • The key concept “страх” and the synonyms representing its close and far periphery get some conceptual features, negative qualities, and some associative links with the help of expressive devices, for example:
  • Phraseological units: (2)
  • У страха глаза велики - to fear (a frightened person exaggerates the danger):
  • Но вышло, что у страха глаза велики. Всё лето она бывала у Слепцова, и всё обошлось благополучно .
  • Сердце в пятки уходит/ушло у кого-л – when somebody feels a sudden fear or terror:
  • Стою я с подружками в уголку и вижу, подходит к нам новенький, весь с иголочки офицерик. И как я его завидела, так сердце у меня в пятки ушло: уж так-то он мне с самого первого взгляда показался, полюбился .
  • Сердце замерло – a sudden fear:
  • И в момент, когда это произошло, меня осенило, мое сердце замерло - заняться чем-то другим - Что ж, как насчет Маугли из Книги Джунглей ?
  • Поджилки трясутся – to tremble of strong fear:
  • Храбрится, а у самого поджилки трясутся, мурашками спину так и осыпает, только что вспомнит про здоровенный кулак и непомерную силу Алексея .
  • The lexeme “страх” and its synonyms frequently occur in proverbs, expressing the national picture of the world:
  • Бояться смерти — на свете не жить; на всякую беду страха не напасёшься.
  • Сробел — пропал.
  • Не смигни, так и не страшно.
  • Кому что думается, тот того и боится.
  • Напуган — наполовину побит.
  • Трус и таракана принимает за великана.
  • Хуже, когда боишься: лиха не минешь, а только надрожишься.
  • Никого не бойся, только Бога бойся.
  • Волков бояться – в лес не ходить.
  • Если боишься – не говори, если сказал – не бойся.
  • Бояться смерти – на свете не жить.
  • Thus, the cognitive analysis of the language material gives us an opportunity to come to the conclusion that the nucleus of the concept “страх” is represented by the noun “страх” and the verb “бояться” in the Russian linguistic picture of the world. H...
  • The following concept to be described is “радость”. First and foremost, we should consider the verbal representation of this concept in the Russian etymological dictionary and analyze the semantics of the lexical units of the concept using the Russian...
  • Радость - др.-русск., ст.-слав. “радъ” (др.-греч. περιχαρής), укр. “ра́дий”, белор.“рад” – “охотный”, словенск. “ràd”, “rádа” – “рад, охотный”. Предполагают родство с англос. “rót” – “радостный, благородный”, др.-исл. “rǿtask” – “проясняться, веселеть...
  • The concept “радость” in the Russian language is represented by the lexical unit “радость”. Let us consider the lexeme in the Russian dictionaries. “Толковый словарь русского языка” by S.I. Ozhegov suggests the following definition of the lexeme “рад...
  • Радость – 1) весёлое чувство, ощущение большого душевного удовлетворения; 2) то, что (тот, кто) вызывает такое чувство; 3) радостное, счастливое событие, обстоятельство.
  • In “Толковый словарь русского языка современной версии” we find the following interpretation of the lexeme “радость”:
  • Радость – веселье, услада, наслажденье, утеха, внутренне чувство удовольствия, приятного, вследствии желанного удовольствия; самое событие или предмет, возбудивший эти душевного чувства.
  • The “Толковый словарь русского языка” by D.N. Ushakov suggests the following definitions of the lexeme “радость”:
  • Радость, радости, ж. – 1) чувство удовольствия, внутреннего удовлетворения, веселое настроение; 2) событие, предмет, возбуждающие такое чувство. Радости жизни (всё то, что сопровождается удовольствием, что доставляет удовольствие в жизни); 3) употр. п...
  • In “Толковый словарь живого великорусского языка” by V.I. Dal we observe the following interpretation of the lexeme “радость”:
  • Радость ж. – 1) веселье, услада, наслажденье, утеха, противопол. скорбь, грусть, горе, печаль и пр. внутреннее чувство удовольствия, приятного, вследствие желанного случая; 2) радость, стар. брачный пир, свадьба, южн. или зап. веселье, весёлки; 3) ра...
  • The “Новый словарь русского языка” compiled by T.F. Efremova suggests the following definitions of the lexeme “радость”:
  • Радость - 1) состояние абсолютной удовлетворенности жизнью, чувство наивысшего удовольствия, радости, счастья; 2) успех, удача, везение; 3) счастливый случай, счастливое стечение обстоятельств; 4) о состоянии, когда очень хорошо; 5) о везении, удаче, ...
  • Having analyzed the given definitions, we may say that the lexeme “радость” is represented in many Russian dictionaries. Let’s consider the common and specific features of the given lexeme in the following table (Appendix, Table 6).
  • The key concept “радость” and the synonyms representing its close and far periphery get some conceptual features, positive qualities, and some associative links with the help of expressive devices, for example:
  • Phraseological units: (3)
  • Душа на небе - somebody experiences the feeling of high joy:
  • Михаил уж сколько раз сегодня проходил мимо этих ворот, а вот подошёл к ним сейчас, и опять душа на небе. Чудо-ворота! .
  • Душа радуется – when somebody feels pride and inner satisfaction:
  • Рядом с моей новой избой стоит смолистый пень в два обхвата. Я посматриваю на него, и душа радуется: не надо теперь думать о растопке — вот она, в трех шагах .
  • Сердце радуется – when somebody feels satisfaction, joy for smth or smb:
  • Она до сих пор не понимала, что произошло с людьми. Вышли в поле да так заработали, что сердце радуется .
  • The lexeme “радость” and its synonyms frequently occur in proverbs, expressing the national picture of the world:
  • Солнце восходит — старым радость, заходит — молодым сладость.
  • Радость прямит, кручина крючит.
  • От радости кудри вьются, в печали секутся.
  • Мальчик — утеха отцу, а девочка — радость матери.
  • Желанные вести — мил гонец, горькие вести и гонцу не на радость.
  • Thus, the cognitive analysis of the language material gives us an opportunity to come to the conclusion that the nucleus of the concept “радость” is represented by the noun “радость” in the Russian linguistic picture of the world. Having analyzed seve...
  • The following concept is “ненависть”.
  • “Этимологический словарь русского языка” compiled by Max Vasmer suggests the following definition of the lexeme “ненависть”:
  • Ненависть - происходит от церк.-слав. “ненавидѣти”, ст.-слав. “ненависть” (греч. μῖσος). Образовано с отрицанием от “навидѣти” – “охотно смотреть, навещать”; cвязано с “видеть”, от праслав., от котого в числе прочего произошли: др.-русск., ст.-слав. ...
  • The concept “ненависть” in the Russian language is represented by the lexical unit “ненависть”. Let us consider the lexeme in the Russian dictionaries. “Толковый словарь русского языка” by S.I. Ozhegov suggests the following definition of the lexeme ...
  • Ненависть - чувство сильной вражды, злобы. Питать, испытывать ненависть к кому-нибудь. Ненависть душит кого-нибудь (обуревает).
  • In “Толковый словарь русского языка современной версии” we find the following interpretation of the lexeme “ненависть”:
  • Ненависть – 1) чувство отвращения, омерзенья, желание зла, быть кому-либо врагом, питать вражду, злобу, самую сильную нелюбовь; 2) зложелательство, нелюбовь, вражда, злонамеренность.
  • The “Толковый словарь русского языка” by D.N. Ushakov suggests the following definitions of the lexeme “ненависть”:
  • Ненависть – чувство сильнейшей вражды. Угнетающие классы при жизни великих революционеров платили им постоянными преследованиями, встречали их учение самой дикой злобой, самой бешеной ненавистью, самым бесшабашным походом лжи и клеветы. Ленин. Неприми...
  • In “Толковый словарь живого великорусского языка” by V.I. Dal we observe the following interpretation of the lexeme “ненависть”:
  • Ненавидеть - 1) не терпеть, не любить, не выносить, чувствовать отвращение, омерзение; желать зла, быть кому врагом, питать вражду, злобу, самую сильную нелюбовь; 2) ненавиствовать против кого или чего; ненавистничать против, или без падежа; ненавидет...
  • Ненависть - отвращение, омерзение; зложелательство, сильная нелюбовь, вражда, злонамеренность.
  • Ненавистный - ненавидящий, исполненный ненависти, злобы; ненавидимый, презираемый, нелюбимый; достойный ненависти, преследования.
  • The “Новый словарь русского языка” compiled by T.F. Efremova suggests the following definitions of the lexeme “ненависть”:
  • Ненависть - 1) нерасположение, недружелюбное, враждебное отношение к кому-л., чему-л. антипатия, злобность, неблагожелательность, неблагосклонность, недоброжелательство, недоброхотство, неприязнь, нерасположение; 2) вражда, враждебность, недружелюбие,...
  • Having analyzed the given definitions, we may say that the lexeme “ненависть” is represented in many Russian dictionaries. Let’s consider the common and specific features of the given lexeme in the following table (Appendix, Table 7).
  • The given system of lexemes contains several levels of generalization. “Ненависть” is a maximal common component. The lexeme “ненависть” as a dominant of the semantic field is a nuclear of the concept “ненависть”. All the members are united by the com...
  • The key concept “ненависть” and the synonyms representing its close and far periphery get some conceptual features, negative qualities, and some associative links with the help of expressive devices, for example:
  • Phraseological units: (4)
  • Вбить клин — to establish hostile relations:
  • Июльские дни вбили клин между верхами и низами соглашательских партий.
  • Воротить нос - to show a disdainful attitude towards someone, anything:
  • Принесла домой, а Марья от него нос воротит: “Ты рожала, ты и выхаживай” .
  • Доходить до белого каления — till upper anger, irritation:
  • Обычно сдержанного Леонида на этот раз взорвало и, как это бывает со спокойными людьми, когда их кто-нибудь доводит до белого каления, лицо его стало неузнаваемым: оно то бледнело, то волна краски заливала его .
  • The lexeme “ненависть” and its synonyms frequently occur in proverbs, expressing the national picture of the world:
  • От любви до ненависти — один шаг.
  • Слепая ненависть – плохой советчик.
  • Ненавистью сыт не будешь.
  • Кто кого обидит, тот того и ненавидит.
  • Доброе слово в жемчугах ходит, а ненавистное – в портках.
  • И любя ненавидят.
  • Добрая слава злому ненавистна.
  • Thus, the cognitive analysis of the language material gives us an opportunity to come to the conclusion that the nucleus of the concept “ненависть” is represented by the noun “ненависть” and the verb “ненавидеть” in the Russian linguistic picture of t...
  • As is seen, “ненависть” is associated with negative feelings. The periphery of the concept is represented by synonyms and associative links.
  • Next we will consider the concept “любовь”. “Этимологический словарь русского языка” compiled by Max Vasmer suggests the following definition of the lexeme “любовь”:
  • Любовь - происходит от праслав. *ljubъ, от которого в числе прочего произошли: др.-русск., ст.-слав. “любъ” (др.-греч. ποθεινός), русск. “любо”, “любо́й” – “дорогой”. Родственно лит. “liaupsė̃” – “почет; хвалебная песнь”.
  • The concept “любовь” in the Russian language is represented by the lexical unit “любовь”. Let us consider the lexeme in the Russian dictionaries. “Толковый словарь русского языка” by S.I. Ozhegov suggests the following definition of the lexeme “любовь”:
  • Любовь – 1) глубокое эмоциональное влечение, сильное сердечное чувство. Чары, ожидание, муки любви. Признание в любви. Объясниться в любви. Брак по любви, без любви. Выйти замуж по любви (за любимого человека); 2) чувство глубокого расположения, самоо...
  • In “Толковый словарь русского языка современной версии” we find the following interpretation of the lexeme “любовь”:
  • Любовь – сильная привязанность к кому- либо, начиная от склонности до страсти, сильное желанье, хотенье, избранье или предпочтенье кого или чего либо по воле, иногда вовсе беззотчетно и безрассудно.
  • The “Толковый словарь русского языка” by D.N. Ushakov suggests the following definitions of the lexeme “любовь”:
  • Любовь – 1) чувство привязанности, основанное на общности интересов, идеалов, на готовности отдать свои силы общему делу. Любовь к родине. Материнская любовь; 2) такое же чувство, основанное на половом влечении; отношения двух лиц, взаимно связанных э...
  • In “Толковый словарь живого великорусского языка” by V.I. Dal we observe the following interpretation of the lexeme “любовь”:
  • Любовь – 1) страсть, душевный порыв к чему, нравственная жажда, жажданье, алчба, безотчетное влеченье, необузданное, неразумное хотенье.
  • The “Новый словарь русского языка” compiled by T.F. Efremova suggests the following definitions of the lexeme “любовь”:
  • Любовь – 1) чувство глубокой привязанности, преданности кому-л., чему-л., основанное на общности интересов, идеалов, на готовности отдать свои силы общему делу или спасению, сохранению кого-л., чего-л.; 2) такое чувство, основанное на взаимной симпати...
  • Отношения двух лиц, взаимно связанных таким чувством.
  • Having analyzed the given definitions, we may say that the lexeme “любовь” is represented in many Russian dictionaries. Let’s consider the common and specific features of the given lexeme in the following table (Appendix, Table 8).
  • The given system of lexemes contains several levels of generalization. “Любовь” is a maximal common component. The lexeme “любовь” as a dominant of the semantic field is a nuclear of the concept “любовь”. All the members are united by the common seman...
  • 1) Любовь как увлеченность чем-либо:
  • Он любил такие внезапные переходы к незначимым байкам,сплетням о великих, к поучительным историям, с кем-то произошедшим .
  • Симпатичный мужик, искренне влюбленный в искусство, то бишь в грязное болото .
  • 2) Любовь как человек, внушающий это чувство:
  • “Blanca Paloma”, любовь моя, по-испански значит – “белая голубка” .
  • 3) Любовь как глубокая страсть:
  • Но истинной страстью Юлии Павловны была верховая езда .
  • Так увлеченно и тревожно, так страстно, как об этой картине, он не думал ни об одной из своих женщин .
  • Молодой Пален страстно любил Марию .
  • The key concept “любовь” and the synonyms representing its close and far periphery get some conceptual features, positive and negative qualities, and some associative links with the help of expressive devices, for example:
  • Phraseological units: (5)
  • Любить до смерти - to love smb very affectionately:
  • Я тебя до смерти люблю и уважаю, но тебе здесь быть нельзя .
  • Любовь до гроба – the feeling of love which lasts till death:
  • Немного жалеешь, что обещала преданность и любовь до гроба? .
  • The lexeme “любовь” and its synonyms frequently occur in proverbs, expressing the national picture of the world:
  • Любовь зла - полюбишь и козла
  • Любовь не картошка - не выбросишь в окошко.
  • Старая любовь не ржавеет.
  • Где любовь да совет, там и горя нет.
  • От любви до ненависти один шаг.
  • Где любовь, там и совет.
  • Где любовь, там угождение, а где страх, там принуждение.
  • Любовь — крапива стрекучая.
  • Любовь — что зеркало: разобьешь — не склеишь.
  • Thus, the cognitive analysis of the language material gives us an opportunity to come to the conclusion that the nucleus of the concept “любовь” is represented by the noun “любовь” in the Russian linguistic picture of the world. Having analyzed severa...
  • The given system of lexemes contains several levels of generalization. “Ҡурҡыу” is a maximal common component. The lexeme “ҡурҡыу” as a dominant of the semantic field is a nuclear of the concept “ҡурҡыу”. All the members are united by the common seman...
  • The key concept “ҡурҡыу” and the synonyms representing its close and far periphery get some conceptual features, positive and negative qualities, and some associative links with the help of expressive devices, for example:
  • Phraseological units: шөр ебәреү, ҡойолоп төшөү, йөрәк ҡубыу, ҡот осоу, йән алҡымға килеү, йәнде уста тотоу, төҫ ҡасыу, ҡобара осоу, бирешеп барыу:
  • Ҡойолоп төшөү – to feel a sudden fear:
  • Был хәбәрҙе ишетеү менән ҡойолдо ла төштө Фатима.
  • Ҡот осоу – to be frightened suddenly:
  • Һине был кейемдә күреп ҡот осто.
  • Ҡобара осоу – to be very afraid:
  • Бынауындай ҙур этте күреп, бесәй балаһының ҡобараһы осто.
  • Йөҙ ҡасыу – to be very afraid:
  • Малайҙың йөҙө ҡасҡан,туҡтауһыҙ илауҙан бите шешкән ине .
  • The lexeme “ҡурҡыу” and its synonyms frequently occur in proverbs, expressing the national picture of the world:
  • Күҙ ҡурҡа – ҡул эшләй.
  • Ҡурҡҡанға ҡуш күренә.
  • Батыр бер үлер, ҡурҡаҡ ҡырҡ үлер.
  • Ҡурҡаҡ айыуҙан батыр бесәйең мең артыҡ.
  • Бүренән ҡурҡҡан урманға бармай.
  • Thus, the cognitive analysis of the language material gives us an opportunity to come to the conclusion that the nucleus of the concept “ҡурҡыу” is represented by the lexeme “ҡурҡыу” in the Bashkir linguistic picture of the world. Having analyzed seve...
  • The following concept to be described is “ҡыуаныс”. The explanatory dictionary of the Bashkir language (“Башҡорт теленең аңлатмалы һүҙлеге”) compiled by N.F. Sufianova, Z.A. Sirazitdinov and Z.G. Uraksin suggests the following definition of the term...
  • Ҡыуаныс - шатланыу, һөйөнөү, шарҡырау, түбә күккә тейеү, кинәнеү.
  • In the dictionary of the Bashkir language (“Башҡорт теленең һүҙлеге”) compiled by I.M. Agishev, A.G. Biishev, G.D. Zainullina, Z.K. Ishmukhametov, T.Kh. Kusimova, Z.G. Uraksin and U.M. Yarullina we can observe the following interpretation of the lex...
  • Ҡыуаныс – 1) күңелгә ҙур ҡәнәғәтлек, рәхәтлек биргән хис, кинәнес, шатлыҡ, һөйөнөс. Ҡыуаныс кисереү. Ҡыуаныс артыу. Ҡыуаныс менән һуғарыу; 2) ҡыуаныс, ҡәнәғәтлелек, рәхәтлек, кинәнес, шатлыҡ, һөйөнөс.
  • In “Хәҙерге башҡорт теленең аңлатмалы һүҙлеге” compiled by G.D. Zainullina we observe the following interpretation of the lexeme “ҡыуаныс”:
  • Ҡыуаныс – 1) күңелгә ҙур ҡәнәғәтлек, рәхәтлек биргән хис, шатланыу, кинәнес, һөйөнөс; 2) сығанаҡ килештәге һүҙҙән һуң килеп, рәхмәтлек теләкте белдерә.
  • Having analyzed the given definitions, we may say that the lexeme “ҡыуаныс” is represented in many Bashkir dictionaries. Let’s consider the common and specific features of the given lexeme in the following table (Appendix, Table 10).
  • Шатлыҡ – ҡыуаныс, бәхет, һөйөнөс.
  • Һөйөнөс – шатлыҡлы ваҡиға йә хәбәргә ҡыуаныу хисе.
  • Ҡәнәғәтлелек – риза булыу, һөйөнөү, шат булыу.
  • The given system of lexemes contains several levels of generalization. “Ҡыуаныс” is a maximal common component. The lexeme “ҡыуаныс” as a dominant of the semantic field is a nuclear of the concept “ҡыуаныс”. All the members are united by the common se...
  • The key concept “ҡыуаныс” and the synonyms representing its close and far periphery get some conceptual features, positive and negative qualities, and some associative links with the help of expressive devices, for example:
  • Phraseological units: ауыҙ ҡолаҡҡа етеү, бәхеттең етенсе ҡатында, йөрәк осоноу, түбә күккә тейеү:
  • Түбә күккә тейеү – to be very happy and delighted with the situation:
  • Уллы булыуҙан түбәһе күккә тейгән Марат һыйын бер кемдән дә йәлләмәне, һәммәһенә тәтене .
  • Ауыҙ ҡолаҡҡа етеү – to be very happy:
  • – Нимә ауыҙың ҡолағыңа еткән? Алтын таптыңмы әллә? .
  • Бәхеттең етенсе ҡатында – to be very happy because of some event:
  • Бер аҙна бәхеттең етенсе ҡатында осто егет. Ә унан бәхет булмағандай юҡҡа сыҡты .
  • The lexeme “ҡыуаныс” and its synonyms frequently occur in proverbs, expressing the national picture of the world:
  • Аҙға ҡәнәғәт итмәгән күбен күрмәҫ.
  • Аҡыллы атым бар тип ҡыуаныр, алйот ҡатыным бар тип ҡыуаныр.
  • Ҡайғыны дошман да бүлешә, шатлыҡты бүлешер дуҫ тап.
  • Ҡайғы игеҙ, ҡыуаныс яңғыҙ йөрөй.
  • Thus, the cognitive analysis of the language material gives us an opportunity to come to the conclusion that the nucleus of the concept “ҡыуаныс” is represented by the lexeme “ҡыуаныс” in the Bashkir linguistic picture of the world. Having analyzed se...
  • The following emotional concept under consideration is “нәфрәт”. The explanatory dictionary of the Bashkir language (“Башҡорт теленең аңлатмалы һүҙлеге”) compiled by N.F. Sufianova, Z.A. Sirazitdinov and Z.G. Uraksin suggests the following definition...
  • Нәфрәт - күрә алмау, ен һөймәү, яратмау, нәфрәт, асыу, дошманлыҡ.
  • In the dictionary of the Bashkir language (“Башҡорт теленең һүҙлеге”) compiled by I.M. Agishev, A.G. Biishev, G.D. Zainullina, Z.K. Ishmukhametov, T.Kh. Kusimova, Z.G. Uraksin and U.M. Yarullina we can observe the following interpretation of the lex... (1)
  • Нәфрәт(ғәр.) - 1) бик ҡаты асыу, көслө дошманлыҡ тойғоһо, күрә алмау(сылыҡ), дошманлыҡ, яуызлыҡ, йәберләүселәргә нәфрәт; 2) күрә алмау.
  • In “Хәҙерге башҡорт теленең аңлатмалы һүҙлеге” compiled by G.D. Zainullina we observe the following interpretation of the lexeme “нәфрәт”:
  • Нәфрәт - 1) бик ҡаты асыу, күрә алмаусанлыҡ тойғоһо; 2) дошманлыҡ, күтәрә алмау.
  • Having analyzed the given definitions, we may say that the lexeme “нәфрәт” is represented in many Bashkir dictionaries. Let’s consider the common and specific features of the given lexeme in the following table (Appendix, Table 11).
  • The given system of lexemes contains several levels of generalization. “Нәфрәт” is a maximal common component. The lexeme “нәфрәт” as a dominant of the semantic field is a nuclear of the concept “нәфрәт”. All the members are united by the common seman...
  • The key concept “нәфрәт” and the synonyms representing its close and far periphery get some conceptual features, negative qualities, and some associative links with the help of expressive devices, for example:
  • Phraseological units: йән һөймәү, күрә алмау, ҡараш менән үлтереү:
  • Йән һөймәү – to dislike:
  • Йәнем һөймәй ошо хәбәр тоҡсайын. Күҙ алдымда йөрөмәһә ине ул .
  • Ҡараш менән үлтереү – to express the upper degree of hatred:
  • Хәленән килһә, ҡарашы менән генә үлтерер ине мине .
  • The lexeme “нәфрәт” and its synonyms frequently occur in proverbs, expressing the national picture of the world:
  • Нәфрәттән мөхәббәт көслө.
  • Нәфрәт менән шайтан бер атанан.
  • Thus, the cognitive analysis of the language material gives us an opportunity to come to the conclusion that the nucleus of the concept “нәфрәт” is represented by the lexeme “нәфрәт” in the Bashkir linguistic picture of the world. Having analyzed seve...
  • Next we will consider the emotional concept “мөхәббәт”. The explanatory dictionary of the Bashkir language (“Башҡорт теленең аңлатмалы һүҙлеге”) compiled by N.F. Sufianova, Z.A. Sirazitdinov and Z.G. Uraksin suggests the following definition of the t...
  • Мөхәббәт – 1) һөйөү тойғоһо кисереү, ғишыҡ тотоу, ҡәҙер итеү; 2) һөйөү, яратыу, үлеп тороу.
  • In the dictionary of the Bashkir language (“Башҡорт теленең һүҙлеге”) compiled by I.M. Agishev, A.G. Biishev, G.D. Zainullina, Z.K. Ishmukhametov, T.Kh. Kusimova, Z.G. Uraksin and U.M. Yarullina we can observe the following interpretation of the lexe...
  • Мөхәббәт – кемгә йәки нимәгәлер булған яратыу тойғоһо, ике енес кешеләр араһында барлыҡҡа килгән яратыу хисе, бер нимә менән ныҡ мауығыу.
  • In “Хәҙерге башҡорт теленең аңлатмалы һүҙлеге” compiled by G.D. Zainullina we observe the following interpretation of the lexeme “мөхәббәт”:
  • Мөхәббәт – 1) кемгә йәки нимәгәлер булған яратыу тойғоһо, һөйөү; 2) ике енес кешеләре араһындағы яратыу хисе, ғишыҡ; 3) берәй нәмә менән мауығыу йәки ҡыҙыҡһыныу тойғоһо.
  • Having analyzed the given definitions, we may say that the lexeme “мөхәббәт” is represented in many Bashkir dictionaries. Let’s consider the common and specific features of the given lexeme in the following table (Appendix, Table 12).
  • Яратыу – кемгәлер булған йылы, нескә хис йәки тойғоно күңел төбөндә йөрөтөү.
  • Һөйөү – яратыу, ҡәҙерләү, йөрәк түрендә йөрөтөү.
  • The given system of lexemes contains several levels of generalization. “Мөхәббәт” is a maximal common component. The lexeme “мөхәббәт” as a dominant of the semantic field is a nuclear of the concept “мөхәббәт”. All the members are united by the common...
  • 1) Кешегә ҡарата һәйәү тойғоһо:
  • – Белмәйһегеҙҙер шул. Беҙгә бит аралашырға тура килмәне. Ә мин һеҙҙе бер ҡасан да онотманым. Беҙ, башланғыс синыф уҡыусылары, Айбулат ағай менән икегеҙҙең мөхәббәтегеҙгә һоҡланып, бергә йөрөгән сағығыҙға тура килһәк: “Эх, шулай Айбулат ағай кеүек ҙур ...
  • Күңелендә ғүмерҙә булмаған бушлыҡ. Әйтерһең, саф мөхәббәте лә, көнсөллөк тә, ғәйбәт тә, енәйәт эше лә булмаған .
  • Шул саҡ әллә ҡайҙан ғүмер буйы һөйгән, ләкин үҙенә насип булмаған Настяһе эргәһенә килде .
  • 2) Кешене ҡабул итеү, үҙ итеү хисе:
  • – Әлләсе, яҙмышың шул булғас ни... Әйтер хәлем юҡ, ыҙғышып, талашып торманыҡ. Балаларымды үҙенеке һымаҡ яратты. Үҙемде, бәлки, өнәп еткермәгәндер, ни тиһәң дә .
  • 3) Тыуған илгә ҡарата йылы тойғо:
  • – Их, тыуған еркәйем, мәхәббәтем һиңә көслөләрҙән дә көслө!
  • The key concept “мөхәббәт” and the synonyms representing its close and far periphery get some conceptual features, positive and negative qualities, and some associative links with the help of expressive devices, for example:
  • Phraseological units: үлеп һөйөү, бөтә йөрәктән яратыу, йән-тән менән һөйөү, бар булмыш менән яратыу, мөхәббәт утында яныу:
  • Мөхәббәт утында яныу – to suffer from strong feeling of love:
  • – Их, Фатима, белһәң ине минең ҡасанан бирле мөхәббәт утында янғанымды! .
  • Үлеп һөйөү – to love smb very much:
  • Үлеп һөйҙөм һине, бар йөрәктән. Бар булмышым менән. Көттөм, көттөм күҙ талдырып .
  • The lexeme “мөхәббәт” and its synonyms frequently occur in proverbs, expressing the national picture of the world:
  • Һөймәгәнгә - һөйкәлмә.
  • Мөхәббәт өсөн йән фиҙа.
  • Мөхәббәт тамуҡ утынан ете өлөш артыҡ булыр, ти.
  • Мөхәббәт таш ярҙырта.
  • Мөхәббәт тешкә ҡарамай, эшкә ҡарай.
  • Яратҡан эш тә, кеше лә ялҡытмай.
  • Thus, the cognitive analysis of the language material gives us an opportunity to come to the conclusion that the nucleus of the concept “мөхәббәт” is represented by the lexeme “мөхәббәт” in the Bashkir linguistic picture of the world. Having analyzed...
  • Table №4

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